It happened on August 10 in Paris. Sometimes called “Second Revolution”, August 10, 1792 was a decisive day in the story of the French Revolution. Organized and led by the Paris Commune, this blood-filled day puts an end to the millennium-old French monarchy and gives birth to a new republican regime.
Since they attempt to flee to Varennes, the royal family is under house arrest and “the people’s watch” at the Tuileries Palace – then set at the West of the Louvre and seat of executive power – in an atmosphere of suspicion because of a likely exterior invasion of the realm, and mistrust of the royal power. The Parisian Sans-Culottes are loaded for bear.
On August 10, 1792 in the morning, the Sans-Culottes, led by General Santerre and former Alsatian hussar close to Danton, Westermann, gather not far from the Tuileries Palace, willing to be done with the power instated. Insulted by revolutionaries screaming under the windows “Down with veto! Down with the fat pig!”, King Louis XVI, Queen Marie-Antoinette and the heir apparent flee the palace and find shelter at the Assembly.
By the Tuileries palace, the crowd grows and the atmosphere gets heated. After several storming attempts repelled by the 900 Swiss Guards and national guards, the Sans-Culottes eventually manage to enter the royal palace through weapons.
Upon the king’s order, the Swiss Guards retreat but are soon surrounded by revolutionaries on the Place Louis XV. Captured, 600 of them are taken to the Hôtel de Ville and massacred. The bodies are mutilated by the crowd while inside the Tuileries palace, the Sans-Culottes kill 200 aristocrats, courtiers, and servants without distinction.
Summoned by the legislative Assembly, a National Convention makes never-before-seen measures dictated by the Paris Commune to “guarantee the people’s sovereignty and the rule of freedom and equality”. The crowd announced the suspension of Louis XVI and his title as King of the French.
Captured by the revolutionaries after three nights spent at the Couvent des Feuillants, the king and his family are thrown into jail, at the Tour du Temple. On August 10, 1792, the abolition or Royalty is announced and the constitutional monarchy is no more in France. But the first Reign of Terror is already coming.
Iconographies : Musée Carnavalet